Areas of Change (AOC)

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List of AOCs

Title AoC number Primary domain Secondary domain Onset time frame
Introduction of new aircraft aerodynamic and propulsion configurations AoC_001 T   1-ongoing
Changes in design roles and responsibilities among manufacturing organizations AoC_003 ORG   1-ongoing
Introduction of new runway-independent aircraft concepts AoC_005 AP OP, T 4-far
New supersonic transport aircraft AoC_006 T OP 3-mid
New hypersonic aircraft AoC_007 T   4-far
Accelerating scientific and technological advances enabling improved performance, decreased fuel burn, and reduced noise AoC_009 T   1-ongoing
Air traffic composed of a mix of aircraft and capabilities AoC_011 OP   1-ongoing
Reliance on automation supporting a complex air transportation system AoC_013 OP ANS, AP 1-ongoing
Advanced vehicle health management systems AoC_014 MRO OP 1-ongoing
New cockpit and cabin surveillance and recording systems AoC_018 PERS AU 2-near
Emergence of high-energy propulsion, power, and control systems AoC_019 T   1-ongoing
Advanced supplementary weather information systems AoC_021 OP T 1-ongoing
New cockpit warning and alert systems AoC_022 T PERS 2-near
Next-generation in-flight entertainment and business systems AoC_027 PASS T 1-ongoing
New glass-cockpit designs in general aviation aircraft AoC_031 PERS T 1-ongoing
Entry into service of Very Light Jets AoC_033 OP   1-ongoing
Increasing implementation of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) for efficient and safe operations AoC_036 OP PERS 1-ongoing
Increasing use of composite structural materials AoC_039 T MRO 1-ongoing
Ongoing electronic component miniaturization AoC_041 T   1-ongoing
Highly-integrated, interdependent aircraft systems AoC_043 T   1-ongoing
Changing human factors assumptions for implementing technology AoC_047 PERS OP 1-ongoing
Delegation of responsibility from the regulating authority to the manufacturing, operating or maintaining organization AoC_051 ORG AU 2-near
Trend toward privatization of government ATC systems and airports AoC_053 ORG   2-near
Shift toward performance-based solutions and regulations AoC_058 AU   2-near
Remote Virtual Tower (RVT) operational concepts AoC_064 OP AP, PERS, T 1-ongoing
Societal pressure to find individuals and organizations criminally liable for errors in design and operations AoC_066 ENV AU 1-ongoing
Economic incentives to form partnerships and outsource organizational activities AoC_067 ENV ORG 1-ongoing
Global organizational models AoC_068 ORG   1-ongoing
Evolution in lines of authority, command and responsibilities within the air transport system AoC_069 ORG AU 2-near
Increasing complexities within future air transportation systems AoC_073 ORG ANS 1-ongoing
Increasing size of maintenance, ATM, and operations databases AoC_078 OP ANS 1-ongoing
Reduction in aviation personnel familiar with previous generation technology and practices AoC_080 ORG   1-ongoing
Technologies and procedures enabling reduced separation AoC_082 ANS OP, AU 2-near
Evolution in the type and quantity of information used by ATM personnel AoC_086 ANS OP 2-near
Changing design, operational, and maintenance expertise involving air navigation system (ANS) equipment AoC_087 ANS PERS, OP 2-near
Increasing heterogeneity of hardware and software within the ANS system AoC_089 ANS T 1-ongoing
Increasing reliance on satellite-based systems for Communications, Navigations, and Surveillance (CNS) Air Traffic Management functions AoC_093 ANS SPACE, T 2-near
Changing approaches to ATM warning and alert systems AoC_095 ANS OP 2-near
Increasing interactions between highly-automated ground-based and aircraft-based systems AoC_096 ANS T, AP 1-ongoing
Introduction of artificial intelligence in ATM systems AoC_097 ANS T 3-mid
Increasing dependence on in-flight electronic databases AoC_099 OP ANS, MRO 1-ongoing
Increasing operations of military and civilian unmanned aerial systems in shared military, civilian, and special use airspace AoC_100 OP ANS,T 3-mid
Redesigned or dynamically reconfigured airspace AoC_101 ANS OP 2-near
Increasing utilization of RNAV/RNP departures and approaches by smaller aircraft AoC_109 OP ANS, AP 1-ongoing
Increased operations of lighter-than-air vehicles including dirigibles and airships AoC_113 OP ANS, AP 3-mid
Increasing operations of cargo aircraft AoC_114 OP   1-ongoing
Very long-range operations, polar operations, and ETOPS flights. AoC_117 OP   1-ongoing
Emerging alternate operational models in addition to hub-and-spoke concepts AoC_118 OP ENV 1-ongoing
Increasing numbers of Light Sport Aircraft AoC_119 OP T 2-near
Accelerated transition of pilots from simple to complex aircraft AoC_122 PERS OP 2-near
Operation of low-cost airlines AoC_125 OP ENV 1-ongoing
Growth in aviation system throughput AoC_129 ENV OP 1-ongoing
Assessment of user fees within the aviation system to recover costs of operation AoC_133 AU OP, AP 1-ongoing
Increasing use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) products in aviation AoC_136 T ENV 1-ongoing
Increased need to monitor incident and accident precursor trends AoC_138 OP AU 1-ongoing
Increasingly stringent noise and emissions constraints on aviation operations AoC_139 ENV OP 1-ongoing
Changes in aviation fuel composition AoC_141 T OP, AU 3-mid
Language barriers in aviation AoC_142 OP AU 1-ongoing
Changing management and labor relationships in aviation AoC_144 ORG   1-ongoing
Increasing frequency of hostile acts against the aviation system AoC_148 ENV   1-ongoing
Increasing numbers of migratory birds near airports AoC_161 ENV AP, OP 1-ongoing
Increasing manufacturer sales price incentives due to expanding competitive environment AoC_170 ENV ORG 2-near
New surface traffic flow management technologies AoC_174 AP ANS, OP, T 2-near
Increasing amount of information available to flight crew AoC_184 OP PERS 1-ongoing
Introduction of Non-Deterministic Approaches (NDA) and artificial intelligence (self learning) in aviation systems AoC_185 T OP 3-mid
Shift in responsibility for separation assurance from ATC to flight crew AoC_187 ANS PERS, OP 3-mid
Introduction of new training methodologies for operation of advanced aircraft AoC_188 OP PERS 2-near
Shifting demographics from military to civilian trained pilots AoC_189 PERS ENV 1-ongoing
Increased dependence on synthetic training in lieu of full-realism simulators AoC_200 OP PERS, T 2-near
Shortened and compressed type rating training for self-sponsored pilot candidates AoC_202 PERS AU 2-near
Operational tempo and economic considerations affecting flight crew alertness AoC_205 PERS OP 1-ongoing
Supplementary passenger protection and restraint systems AoC_218 PASS T, AU 3-mid
Increasing functionality and use of personal electronic devices by passengers and flight crew AoC_220 PASS OP 1-ongoing
Introduction of sub-orbital vehicles AoC_221 SPACE OP 2-near
Standards and certification requirements for sub-orbital vehicles AoC_222 SPACE AU 2-near
Increasing frequency of commercial and government space vehicle traffic AoC_223 SPACE OP, AU 2-near
Entry into service of commercial, space-tourism passenger vehicles AoC_225 SPACE AU, OP 2-near
Changes in the qualifications of maintenance personnel AoC_226 MRO ENV, PERS 1-ongoing
Paradigm shift from paper based to electronic based maintenance records and databases AoC_230 MRO ORG 1-ongoing
Increasing use of virtual mockups for maintenance training and for evaluation of requirements AoC_236 MRO T 2-near
Operational tempo and economic considerations affecting fatigue among maintenance personnel AoC_241 PERS MRO, OP 1-ongoing
Increasing single-engine taxi operations or taxi on only inboard engines of 4-engine aircraft AoC_242 OP AP, MRO 1-ongoing
Novel technologies to move aircraft from gate-to-runway and runway-to-gate AoC_243 AP OP, T 2-near
High-density passenger cabin configurations AoC_244 PASS AU, T 3-mid
Implementation of SMS AoC_245 AU ORG 1-ongoing
World wide climate change trending towards warmer temperatures AoC_246 ENV AP 1-ongoing
New aircraft recovery systems in general aviation and commercial aircraft AoC_247 T OP 2-near
Increasing demands for limited radio frequency bandwidth AoC_249 ENV OP 1-ongoing
Shortage of rare-earth elements AoC_250 ENV T 1-ongoing
Introduction of new training methodologies for maintenance staff AoC_251 MRO PERS 1-ongoing
Smaller organizations and owners operating aging aircraft AoC_252 OP MRO 1-ongoing
Aging maintenance workforce AoC_254 PERS MRO 1-ongoing
New pilot licensing standards AoC_255 AU PERS 2-near
Decreasing availability of qualified maintenance staff at stations other than home base of operation AoC_256 MRO OP 2-near
Reluctance among operators to implement voluntary proactive safety mitigations AoC_257 OP AU 2-near
Shift in the demographics of newly-hired air traffic controllers compared with retiree skills and interests AoC_259 PERS ANS 1-ongoing
Increasing use of DataComm Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) for weather information and advisories/clearances AoC_260 ANS OP, AP, PERS 1-ongoing
Operational tempo and economic considerations affecting air traffic controller alertness AoC_261 PERS AU 1-ongoing
Significant imbalances in regional supply and demand AoC_262 PERS OP, ENV 1-ongoing
Shift from clearance-based to trajectory-based air traffic control AoC_263 ANS OP, AP, AU 2-near
Use of non-approved and/or poorly maintained maintenance tools AoC_264 MRO PERS, OP 1-ongoing
Socio economic and political crises affecting aviation AoC_265 ENV OP, AU 1-ongoing
Single-pilot cockpits for large commercial transports AoC_266 PERS OP, AU 3-mid
Increasing adoption of software defined radio systems in commercial aviation AoC_267 T OP 2-near
Decrease in turboprop fleets and operations in the U.S. AoC_268 ANS T 2-near
Proliferation of voluntarily-submitted safety information AoC_269 PERS AU 1-ongoing
Initiation of collaborative air traffic management AoC_270 ANS T 2-near
Improved surface operations technologies and procedures AoC_271 ANS T 2-near
Increased traffic flows involving closely-spaced parallel, converging, and intersecting runway operations AoC_272 ANS T 2-near
Increased throughput utilizing improved vertical flight profiles and aids to low-visibility operations AoC_273 ANS T 2-near
Widespread deployment of System Wide Information Management (SWIM) on-demand NAS information services AoC_274 ANS T 3-mid
Introduction of touch-screen displays and voice recognition to the commercial flight deck AoC_275 T Crew 3-mid
Downsized vertical fins due to introduction of active flow control rudders for increased yaw control AoC_276 T OP 3-mid
Introduction of stratospheric aerial platforms for Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) Air Traffic Management functions AoC_277 T OP 2-near
Increasing disparity between future pilot supply and demand especially among the "feeder supply" of crew experienced in smaller commercial aircraft operations AoC_278 PERS ORG 2-near
Increasing implementation of auto-ground collision avoidance systems (Auto-GCAS on civilian airliners) AoC_279 AC PERS 3-mid
Dramatic increases in the fleets of 737 and A320 derivatives AoC_280 T OP 1-ongoing
under review AoC_281      
Increasing reliance on procedural solutions for operational safety AoC_282 ANS T 1-ongoing
Increased risk for non standard flights AoC_283 OP AC, ORG 1-ongoing
Wake turbulence separation recategorization AoC_284 OP AU 2-near

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